Accounting profit as shown in company’s financial statements differs with the IT profit for many reasons. One of such reason is timing difference. Timing difference arises due to difference in rate of depreciation, method of depreciation and expenses allowed in calculation of accounting profit but now allowed in calculating IT profit.
Based on the impact of timing difference company has to calculate deferred tax asset and liability.
As depreciation is one of the main reasons for having difference in accounting profits and IT profit. In this article we will be discussing how to calculate deferred tax asset and liability that arises due to depreciation.
If depreciation charged for the year as per companies act is Rs. 250000 and depreciation charged as per IT act is Rs. 450000 then accounting profit will differ from IT profit. In our case we have charged Rs. 200000 more to IT profits. This means profit as per IT act must have been reduced.
As higher depreciation is charged to IT profit, the company has deferred a liability which will be paid in future years i.e. deferred tax liability of Rs. 61800 (30.9% of 200000).
In coming years, depreciation charged by IT act will be lesser as compare to companies act, as already the value of asset has been reduced drastically in IT act because of charging of higher depreciation.
This means in future years when depreciation as per companies act will be more compare to IT act, we have to create deferred tax asset for the difference amount based on the tax rates applicable at that time.
Example – Calculation and impact of deferred tax liability and asset
|Year||Companies act||IT Act||Difference||Tax @ 30.9%||Deferred tax asset (DTA) or deferred tax liability (DTL)|
|Value of computer||Depreciation @40%||Value of computer||Depreciation @ 60%|
|2||60000-24000= 36000||14400||60000 -36000 = 24000||14400||0||0||NA|
|3||36000-14400= 21600||8640||24000 -14400 = 9600||5760||-2880||-890||DTA|
|4||21600-8640 = 12960||5184||9600 -5760 = 3840||2304||-2880||-890||DTA|
|5||12960-5184 = 7776||3110||3840 -2304 = 1536||921.6||-2188||-676||DTA|
In the first year we have deferred our tax liability of Rs 3708 by charging higher depreciation in IT act compare to companies act. This liability will come back in future years.
In year two, depreciation charged as per companies act and Income Tax Act are same by which there is no deferred tax asset or liability.
However in third, fourth and fifth year, our book depreciation charged as per companies act is higher compare to Income Tax Act by which instead of creating liability we have to create deferred tax assets.
At the end of the year when you charge complete depreciation in both books of account as per IT act and companies act, you will find that deferred tax asset and liability has been cleared out and the balance is NIL for a particular asset.
Table showing when to consider deferred tax asset and liability
|Why Deferred tax asset or liability||Deferred tax asset (DTA) / deferred tax liability (DTL)||Accounting entry|
|Accounting income is more than taxable income||Tax to be paid for the year is less compare to tax as per accounting year. This means we are creating a liability which will be paid in future.||DTL||Profit and Loss A/c DrTo Deferred Tax A/c|
|Accounting income is less than taxable income||Tax to be paid for the year is more compare to tax on accounting income. This means we are creating an asset.||DTA||Deferred tax A/c DrTo Profit and loss A/c|
Disclosure requirements of deferred tax asset and liability
Deferred tax asset should be disclosed on the face of the balance sheet under the head ‘Non current assets’ after the head Non current investment.
Deferred tax liability should be disclosed under the head ‘Non current liabilities’ after the sub head ‘Long term borrowing’.
Deferred tax asset or liability should be disclosed separately from current asset or liability and also to be distinguished from current year tax liability.