Document type and Posting key in SAP FI

Document type and Posting key in SAP FIDocument types are used to distinguish between various accounting documents and controls the header information. While entering a document you enter the document type in the header section. If you are using any specific transaction code then document type will be defaulted. You can change such defaulted document type from the header section while entering a transaction. But once the document is posted in SAP it can not be changed.

Document types are defined at client level and are therefore valid for all the company codes defined under that client. SAP delivered some standard document type like for vendor invoice, customer invoice and so on which can be changed and copied.  

Numbers are defaulted from the number range defined and assigned to a document type. Like number range following settings are defaulted from a document type;

  1. Account type permitted for posting
  2. Field Status of the document header
  3. Whether invoices are posted with the net procedure or not

Posting Key

Posting key is defined at the client level. The key has some controlling function. It specifies;

  • Account type for posting the line items
  • Line item as a debit or credit
  • Field status for the additional data reflected

Each line item exactly has one posting key to inform the system which accounts are to be posted and whether it’s a debit entry or a credit entry.

In general, debit represents key 40 and credit represents key 50. SAP has delivered different standard posting key for different use. Modifying standard SAP delivered key is not recommended. If you want to change a key then the best way of changing is to copy the standard one to make a new key and then modify it.

How to Define Document Type in SAP

You can use transaction code OBA7 or following path to define it;

SPRO > Financial Accounting > General Ledger Accounting > Business Transaction > G/L Account Posting > Carry Out and Check document settings > define document type

How to define

Use transaction code OB41 or following path to define posting key in sap;

SPRO > Financial Accounting > Financial Accounting Global Settings > Document > Line Item > Controls > Define Posting Keys

How to default document type and posting key

Sap delivered standard document type and posting key to get it assigned to all the transactions. you can view the default settings or if you want, you can change the default settings. By doing this settings, when you enter a transaction the same document type and posting key will be defaulted. you can do this configuration by using transaction key OBU1 or by using following path;

SPRO > Financial Accounting > Financial Accounting Global Settings > Document > Line items > Default values for document processing > Define Document  type and Posting key

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