On the balance sheet you have three major components: assets, liabilities and owner’s equity. In this article, we will understand the term asset on the balance sheet and its components. An asset is a resource controlled by the enterprise as a result of past events from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the company.
In simplified terms, Assets are simply things a company own either through purchase or business or financing activities. By analyzing liabilities and equity of a company, the analyst can easily determine how its acquired or funded. Funding for purchase of assets may come from shareholders, borrowed capital, creditors or through the surplus generated from operating activities.
Based on the length of time before the asset is expected to be consumed or converted to cash, its classified into two overall categories: current/short-term and non-current/long-term. It can further be classified into two more categories: tangible and intangible.
Current or Short term
Short-term or current assets are those things a company owns that are expected to be turned into or used as cash within one year from the date of the balance sheet or in the operating cycle, whichever is longer. Current assets are used quickly and repeatedly during the normal operating cycle of the company.
Here is a list of current assets:
- Cash and cash equivalent,
- Accounts receivables,
- Prepaid expenses, and
- short-term investments
Non-current or Long term
Long-term assets are those things a company owns that are not expected to be converted into or used as cash within one year. It’s also known as non-current or fixed assets.
Companies charge depreciation on the cost of fixed asset to profit and loss account as expenses. Depreciation is calculated every year by allocating costs of acquisition over the useful life. Depreciation accumulated over the years is usually shown in the notes to financial statements.
It includes property, plant, equipment, furniture and fixtures, real estate, patents, trademarks, and long-term investments.
Tangible and Intangible assets on the balance sheet
Tangible assets are physical things that one can touch or hold, or feel. These are used in production of goods and services. It includes the machines, furniture and fixture, buildings, equipment, vehicles, computers, inventory and similar things.
Intangible assets are those items which don’t have tangible qualities; for example, trademarks, patents, copyrights, stocks and bonds etc. This means it lack physical substance.