Examples of Functional area in SAP;
- Sales and distribution
- Human resource
How to create functional area in SAP
You can create it in sap by using transaction code OKBD or path;
SPRO > Enterprise structure > Maintain Structure > Definition > Financial Accounting > Maintain Functional Area
Enter a name and description to the functional area and save it.
If you want it to be used then substitution need to be maintained. By using substitution system will fill the value of desired functional area in sap or else you can enter it in following objects;
- General ledger account
- Cost center
- Internal order
- Sales order
- Production order
- WBS element
System will derive functional area from these objects after you save the document.
If you enter a transaction with a cost center assigned to it and such cost center master is assigned to a functional area. Then system derive and assign it to the document.
If any substitution rule has been defined to enter a functional area then that will be taken in priority and such area will be entered to the document.
If you missed it in one transaction then it will be very difficult to reconcile the balance sheet and profit and loss account with the functional area balance sheet and profit and loss account. So its always advised to plan it before you maintain it in SAP.
How to create substitution rule for functional area
You can create substitution by using following transaction code GGB1 or by using following path;
SPRO > Financial Accounting > Special Purpose Ledger > Tools > Maintain validation/substitution/rules > Maintain Substitution
To create a substitution select Substitution > Create
How to activate substitution rule
To activate use transaction code OBBZ or path;
SPRO > Financial Accounting > Financial Accounting Global Settings > Company code > Prepare Cost of sales Accounting
In the field activate item you enter 1 to activate it.
In SAP it is substituted by cost center accounting. Now a day’s businesses are using this concept because they are getting better result through cost center accounting. Functional area is not assigned to a company code and we do not have any standard methodology to reconcile these financial statements. At the end of the year it’s easy to reconcile cost center accounting which is difficult in functional area management. For better result its always suggested to use cost center accounting. You can also use functional area in addition to cost center accounting.